Created by David Alderoty © 2011
To contact the author use: David@TechForText.com or left click on these words for a website communication form.
Two paragraphs below, there is an online calculation device, Database-Scientific-Calculator, that has three built-in databases, that operate as a single unit, for mathematical operations, for equivalent spreadsheet formulas, and for instructions and general information. This Calculator has the functions of the scientific calculator, such as addition; subtraction; multiplication; division; logarithms with any base, including e; hyperbolic and trigonometric calculations, for sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant, with angles in degrees or radians.
Ideally, before using the download versions or the online version, of the Database-Scientific-Calculator, you should read:
To go directly to either of the above, left click on one of the titles, or scroll down beneath the online Calculator. Alternatively, you can go to the hyperlink table of contents of this website, by left clicking on these words.
General Information, and Instructions for the Database‑Scientific‑Calculator
A Brief Discussion, The Calculator
The Database-Scientific-Calculator can carry out calculations involving: addition; subtraction; multiplication; division; logarithms with any base, including e; hyperbolic and trigonometric calculations, for sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant, with angles in degrees or radians. It also has built-in formulas to calculate the perimeter and area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the number of other functions.
This calculation device is a useful variation of the conventional scientific calculator. However, the Database-Scientific-Calculator was primarily created as an experiment, to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of creating software-based calculation devices with built-in databases.
The Database-Scientific-Calculator has about 50 functions, 14 of which are experimental. However, devices of this nature could hold hundreds or even thousands of functions. This can involve highly complex sets of formulas acting as a single function, as well as functions that carry out a series of logical computations with words. It was technically feasible to load the Database-Scientific-Calculator, with thousands of functions, especially the Excel version. However, the limiting factor was the time required for such a task.
The Database-Scientific-Calculator automatically retrieves instructional text for each function stored in its database. This feature may be useful for educational purposes, such as instructions that explain mathematical operations in a step-by-step way, accompanied with calculated results. This is obviously feasible, from a technical perspective, because devices such as the Database-Scientific-Calculator can store large quantities of instructional text. Devices created with this design concept, can retrieve information based on a word, a sentence, or a question. However, the Database-Scientific-Calculator was programmed to respond to a few mathematical symbol, and one or two words. This is also the result of time limitations.
INTRODUCTION: The Database‑Scientific‑Calculator is very easy to use. No skills or training are needed for this device, and most people can use it successfully, with a minimum of effort. You will probably find the instructions on the input and display boxes adequate, coupled with five minutes or so of trial and error learning. However, detailed instructions are presented in the following paragraphs.
THE INPUT BOXES: Before entering or deleting numbers in an input box, you must left click on it first, and then immediately enter the number. There are three input boxes, and they are white. One is on the upper center of the calculator, and two boxes are located on the left and right. The input boxes, on the left and right are for calculating numbers.
The input box on the upper center of the calculator is not directly involved with the calculations. The number in this input box determines the number of decimal places that are displayed in calculated results. The default is 9 decimal places, but you can change this to any number you prefer.
THE DISPLAY BOXES: The display boxes show data that changes when the mathematical operation is changed, such as calculated results, instructions or other information. These boxes are light blue on the upper section, and light yellow on the lower section. The calculated results, and related instructional text, are displayed in the lower yellow section, in red type.
There are three display boxes, and they are labeled, DISPLAY BOX 1), DISPLAY BOX 2) and DISPLAY BOX 3). DISPLAY BOX 1) shows an equivalent spreadsheet formula for the calculations chosen by the user. DISPLAY BOX 2) presents the calculated results. DISPLAY BOX 3) provides information in a text format, which includes instructions or other information for each mathematical operation programmed into the calculator.
THE PINK PULL-DOWN MENU, FOR SELECTING MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS: There is a pink pull-down menu to select the mathematical operation that you want, such as for multiplication, division, finding the square root of a number, etc. The pull-down menu also has settings to display information without any calculations, such as general instructions. When you open the Database Scientific Calculator, the pink menu is set to display a summary of general instructions, in one paragraph.
INSTRUCTIONS ARE SHOWN, IN DISPLAY BOX 3, FOR EACH ITEM ON THE PINK PULLDOWN MENU: When you select a mathematical operation, with the pink pull-down menu, instructions and/or other information that relate to the mathematics, will automatically appear in DISPLAY BOX 3. This usually consists of a few words, describing the mathematical operation, and it may tell you which numbers to enter in the left input box, and which numbers are to be entered in the right input box.
NUMBERS MUST BE PLACED IN THE CORRECT INPUT BOX: There are two input boxes for numbers, one on the left, and the other on the right. If you do not enter the numbers in the correct input box, you will obtain incorrect calculated results, or no results. For example, if you want to calculate 6 squared, (6x6=36) and you place the numbers in the wrong input box, you will obtain the incorrect result of 2x2x2x2x2x2=64. The exponents are always placed in the right input box.
WHEN ONLY ONE NUMBER IS NEEDED FOR A CALCULATION, PLACE IT IN THE RIGHT INPUT BOX: When only one number is required, the right input box is always used with this calculator, and in such a case the left input box should not contain a number. Examples of mathematical operations that require only one number are: calculating the values of trigonometric or hyperbolic functions, and calculations that require only the radius of a circle or sphere.
SYMBOLS USED IN THE PINK PULL-DOWN MENU: Some of the symbols used in the pink pull-down menu, might not be familiar to you, so you should always check the instructions displayed in DISPLAY BOX 3, for each mathematical operation you want to carry out. Keep in mind that the symbol used will not provide all the information needed to understand a mathematical operation, because of the properties of the left and right input boxes. For example, ^ is used for raising a number in the left input box, to the power of an exponent placed in the right input box. If the exponent is placed in the left input box, and the number in the right input box, the calculated results would be incorrect.
TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING: It is usually necessary to engage in some trial and error learning with even the simplest software. Thus, you should test out the various settings on the Database Scientific Calculator, and practice some trial and error learning.
Design Concept to Maximize User‑Friendliness: For the Website and For The Database‑Scientific‑Calculator
I designed the Database‑Scientific‑Calculator, and this website, in a way that would maximize efficiency and ease-of-use. The Database‑Scientific‑Calculator has instructions placed next to input and display boxes, and it is laid out with a simple structure, with large fonts. The website similarly has large fonts, with a simple structure, and clearly written text. For example, the download links on this website contain precise wording, to prevent confusion, such as: If you want a printer friendly version of the ONLINE Database‑Scientific‑Calculator, left click on these words.
The website is on one long webpage. This provides the convenience of scrolling down or up, from one section to another, and it avoids the unnecessary complexity of pull-down menus, and links to go from one page to another. However, I provided a hyperlink table of contents as an alternative way of navigating the website.
Some of the material on this website is technical. Thus, for an optimum level of comprehension, the reader IDEALLY should have an advanced background in spreadsheets software, coupled with knowledge of programming concepts and mathematics. However, I structured each sentence with the goal of minimizing confusion, and maximizing comprehension, for users with varying levels of technical knowledge. In this regard, perfection is never possible, because users come from diverse technical, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds.
I provided headings and subheadings throughout this text. This allows the user to easily skip material that they find difficult, or uninteresting. The headings and subheadings are also displayed in the table of contents.
I design and build user-friendly software based calculation devices for arithmetic, accounting, currency exchange rates, algebra, trigonometry, correlations, calculus, and databases with built-in calculation devices. I can create specialized versions of the Database‑Scientific‑Calculator, with built-in mathematical functions, and storage and retrieval functionality that relate to your specific business needs.
I write instructions for the devices I build. I can also write instructions for software and computer devices created by others. In addition, I can write advertising for your websites, products and services.
I can provide the services mentioned above on a fee-for-service basis, or possibly based on temporary or permanent employment. If you are interested in my services, and want additional contact information or more data on the services I offer, you can email me at David@TechForText.com or use a website communication form, by left clicking on these words. My resume is online at: www.David100.com/R For a list of all the services I offer see www.TechForText.com For a list of all my websites see www.David100.com
My name is David Alderoty, and I am located in the USA, New York City. If you are a great distance from my locality or are in another country, this is not important. I can provide the above services worldwide, because the software and the writing services I offer can be delivered through the Internet to any locality, providing there are no governmental restrictions.
If you want the table of contents of this website scroll down
This website is more or less laid out like a book, but it is on one long webpage. You can scroll up or down to go from one topic to another. However, if you want to examine all the sections and subsections of this website, use the hyperlink table of contents, below this paragraph. To go to any section or subsection of this website you can left click on the blue words that relate to the material you want to read. The yellow highlighted words are sections, and the un-highlighted words are subsections.
Table of Contents of this Website