__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__Created by David@TechForText.com © 2010
__

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Network™}

**To contact the author use the above email
address, or **

**left click on these words for a website
communication form.**

__The Decision Channeling Calculator
was created as an experimental device. This Calculator demonstrates that
software in the JavaScript and spreadsheet formats can be created with decision
making capabilities, coupled with the functional capacity to channel numbers
through predetermined pathways, and to perform over 100 calculations
simultaneously. The online JavaScript version of the Calculator is
embedded in this webpage, and it is just below this paragraph. If you want
this Calculator in the spreadsheet format (Excel or OpenOffice) or if you need
detailed information, scroll all the way down, beneath the online Calculator.
Alternatively, you can left click on one of the gray buttons, on the top of this
page, which will take you to the Table of Contents of this
Website. Alternative Email is www@TechForText.com__

__The Online JavaScript Decision
Channeling Calculator__

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Network™}

__Hyperlink Table of
Contents of this Website__

__Left click, on the upper portion
of the title or subtitle you are interested in, and the material you want will
appear on your screen. ____Alternatively, you can scroll down
or up, and browse the titles, subtitles, and the 6400 words on this website.
__

**Decision Channeling Calculator Top of this
Webpage**

^{© David@TechForText.com}

**The
Online JavaScript Decision Channeling Calculator** 2

**Download
Links for the Decision**. 16

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 16

**The Excel
and OpenOffice Formats**
16

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 16

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 18

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 18

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 18

**What Does
the Decision Channeling Calculator Do?**. 19

**And What
Type of Computations Does it Perform?**. 19

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 19

**Theory and
Programming Concepts**. 21

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 21

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 21

**Decision-Making Capability of the Calculator** 22

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 22

**Creating a
Theorem that Can be**. 22

**Converted
to Computer Instructions,** 22

**To
Identify Even and Non-Even Numbers**. 22

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 22

**Creating a
Set of Computer Instructions,** 25

**With the
Theorem, and Decision-Making Concepts**. 25

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 25

**The
Computer Instructions Are Presented Below**.. 27

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David@TechForText.com}. 27

**A
Step-By-Step Translation of the Computer** 29

**Instructions, Into Human Language**
29

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David@TechForText.com}. 29

**Are
Alternative Sets of Computer Instructions Possible?**. 35

**for the
Decision Channeling Process Discussed Above?**. 35

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 35

**The
Computer Instructions at the**. 36

**End of the
Green and Yellow Pathways**
36

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**Computer
Resources and the Calculations**. 36

**In the
Green and Yellow Boxes of the**
36

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 36

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 36

**The
Computer Code for the Calculations**. 39

**In the
Yellow and Green Boxes of the**
39

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 39

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 39

**The
Calculator’s Boxes for Square Roots**. 42

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David@TechForText.com}. 42

**The
JavaScript Version of the**. 47

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 47

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 47

**The
Computer Code from the JavaScript Version**. 47

**Of the
Decision Channeling Calculator**
47

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 47

**Concepts
Demonstrated by the**. 47

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 47

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 47

**The
Primary Purpose of The**. 47

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 47

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David@TechForText.com}. 47

**The
Potential Utility of Decision-Making,** 48

**And
Channeling Numbers Through Pathways**. 48

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David@TechForText.com}. 48

**Multiple
Calculations Performed Simultaneously**. 49

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 49

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 51

**Other
Software Besides the**. 51

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 51

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David@TechForText.com}. 51

**Speculations on Decision-Making Software**. 54

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 54

**In
General, Can Decision-Making Software**. 54

**Of Any
Kind, Replace, or Partly Replace,** 54

**Human
Decision-Making; a Few Speculations**. 54

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 54

**Can
Decision-Making Software With Appropriate**. 55

**Hardware
And Sensing Equipment Override**. 55

**Reckless
Decision-Making Of Humans?**. 55

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 55

**Decision
Channeling Calculator,** 55

**And Very
Large or Very Small Numbers**
56

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**Very Large
and Very Small numbers**
56

**(in Terms
of Absolute Value) and the**
56

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 56

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David@TechForText.com}. 56

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 58

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David@TechForText.com}. 58

**Scientific
Notation and the**. 59

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 59

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David@TechForText.com}. 59

**When the
Calculator Displays**. 59

**Very Large
or Very Small Numbers**
59

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**Examples
of the Display of Very Large Numbers**. 60

**In
Scientific Notation, Using the Letter E.** 60

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David@TechForText.com}. 60

**Examples
of the Display of Very Small Numbers**. 60

**In
Scientific Notation, Using the Letter E**. 60

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 60

**Services
Offered From the Author** 61

**Of This
Website and the Creator of the**
61

**Decision
Channeling Calculator** 61

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 61

**Website
Communication Forms,** 61

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 61

**I Offer
Technical and General** 62

^{©
David@TechForText.com}. 62

**Contact Information for the Services I
Offer** 63

__Download Links for the
Decision__

__The Excel and OpenOffice
Formats__

** **

**If you
want an Excel version of the Decision Channeling Calculator left click on these
words.**

** **

The website that provides the free
OpenOffice.org software package is located at **www.OpenOffice.org**. **You can
access this site by left clicking on these words.**

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

You should closely examine the
structure and function of the ** Decision Channeling Calculator, and its
green and yellow pathways, before reading the following. ** This will
make the material presented below easier to understand.

__What Does the Decision Channeling
Calculator Do?____ __

__And
What Type of Computations Does it Perform?__

When the user enters a number into
the input box of the __Decision Channeling Calculator,__ the Calculator
performs a series of computations to determine if the number is even or
non-even. (Non-even is defined here as odd numbers, and numbers with a
decimal, that is greater than or less than zero, such as 3, 85, 2.4, 4.21)
If the number is non-even the __Calculator__ will channel it through a
** yellow path,** but if the number is even it will channel it through
a

At the end of the yellow path
there is a set of yellow boxes where a number of __computations__ takes place
simultaneously, a fraction of the second, after the user entered a non-even
number. Similarly, at the end of the green path there is a set of green
boxes, where a series of computations takes place, when the user enters an even
number. These computations involve over 100 calculations and results, for
the JavaScript version, of the __Decision Channeling Calculator__. The
spreadsheet versions of the Calculator, in the Excel, and OpenOffice formats,
perform over 200 calculations, and display a corresponding number of
results. The calculated results for non-even numbers are displayed in the
yellow boxes and the results for the even numbers are displayed in the green
boxes.

The calculations that take place in the green and yellow boxes consist of a sequence based on the number the user entered in the input box. If the user entered a number, designated by X, the sequence would be X, 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, etc. For example, if you enter an even number, such as 2, the Calculator will put a number in each green box, with the following sequence of, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, etc. In addition, the Calculator will calculate the square root of each of these numbers, and place them in an adjacent green box. When a non-even number is entered, all of the above takes place in the yellow boxes.

Note: When a number is entered
into the input box of the Calculator, either the green or the yellow set of
boxes will not have any calculated results to display. The set of boxes
without any calculated results, will have a **0** (zero) in each box, for the
online JavaScript and OpenOffice versions. However, the Excel version
displays **#VALUE!** in the set of boxes that do not have any calculated
results.

__Theory and Programming
Concepts__

The following material is somewhat technical. Readers who do not have an adequate background in spreadsheet formulas and mathematics might find this section difficult. Even if you have an adequate background, portions of this material should be read at a slow pace, step-by-step.

__Decision-Making Capability of the
Calculator__

Basically, the decision-making capability of the Calculator is based on an evaluation of the mathematical properties of two sets of numbers. Some examples of number sets are represented by the following mathematical expressions: N=X, N>X, N<X, N+X=Y, N/X=Y, N-X=Y, etc. The two number sets used for the Decision Channeling Calculator are even and non-even numbers. Non-even numbers are defined here as either odd numbers, or numbers that are not integers (numbers with a decimal that is greater than or less than zero).

** **

** **

__Creating a Theorem that Can
be____
__

__Converted to Computer
Instructions,__

__To
Identify Even and Non-Even Numbers__

**Almost everyone can
easily identify an even and non-even number; it's common sense.** ** However, a computer does NOT have common
sense.** It is necessary to delineate everything in a
step-by-step way for a computer, which often must be done in the form of
mathematics. To do this, I devised the following theorem, and translated
it into computer instructions for the Decision Channeling Calculator.

__N represents a real number, and
N/2=n, and if n is rounded down to an integer,
the result is represented by I.__

__If 2I=N or 2I-N=0 then N is an
even number, if not, N is a non-even number. __

This theorem can be restated with less mathematical symbols as follows:

I will use a number for this
example called **N**. The number
**N** is divided by two, and then it is
rounded down to an integer, which we will call **I.** If the number **I** is multiplied by two, and if it is equal to the
number **N,** then **N** is an even number, if not **N** is a **non-even number**.

I will present some examples of the above theorem, with numbers, in a series of steps.

If N=43.

N/2=n In words this means: 43 divided by 2 equals 21.5, which means n=21.5

When n=21.5 is rounded down to an integer, it equals 21, which means 21=I

Based on the theorem, 2I=N or 2I-N=0 indicates an even number. If we substitute our numbers (21, and 43) into the above formulas, we get 21 multiplied by 2, does not equal 43. Or 2(21)-43=-1 This proves, based on the theorem presented above, that 43 is a non-even number.

Another example is presented below:

If N=44

(N/2=n) In words this means: 44 divided by 2 equals 22, which means n=22

When n=22 is rounded down to an integer, nothing is changed; it is still equal to 22, which means 22=I

Based on the theorem, 2I=N or 2I-N=0 indicates an even number. If we substitute our numbers (22, and 44) into the above formulas, we get 22 multiplied by 2, equals 44. Or 2(22)-44=0 This proves, based on the theorem presented above, that 44 is an even number.

__Creating a Set of Computer
Instructions,__

__With the Theorem, and
Decision-Making Concepts__

. The theorem, discussed above, and
the concepts of even and non-even, and the channeling of numbers through
specific pathways, had to be presented in mathematical terms, __using symbols that the computer would
understand.__**To do this, two sets of computer
instructions were created for the Decision Channeling Calculator.
**

One set of computer instructions blocks even numbers from passing through the yellow path, but it allows non-even numbers to pass through. The other set of instructions blocks non-even numbers from passing through the green path, but it allows even numbers to pass through.

The two sets of computer
instructions I am focusing on in this section are for the spreadsheet
format. __However, the general concepts involved with these instructions
apply to the JavaScript version of the Calculator, as well as to computer
programming in general. Computer instructions of this type are usually
called formulas, but they can be designed to perform computations that are
nonmathematical.__* *These instructions are very concise, but each
set contains enough information to fill a paragraph, if they were written for a
human. (I will discuss the JavaScript version in a later
section.)

__The Computer Instructions Are
Presented Below__

**=IF((ROUNDDOWN((E8/2),
0)*2)-E8=0, "", E8)**

__Computer instructions, in the form
of a spreadsheet formula__

__This expression blocks even
numbers, and allows non-even numbers to pass through the yellow path of the
Decision Channeling Calculator. __

**=IF((ROUNDDOWN((E8/2),
0)*2)-E8=0, E8, "" )**

__Computer instructions, in the form
of a spreadsheet formula__

__This expression blocks non-even
numbers, and allows even numbers to pass through the green path of the
Decision Channeling Calculator.__

The meaning of the symbols in the green and yellow expressions, above, are explained below. This will be followed by a discussion of how these formulas function, and how they instruct the computer.

__The E8 is a cell reference for the pink input box on
top of the calculator. This acts as if it was a transmission wire that
sends data from the input box to any cell that has =E8 in it. __

__The / with the 2 means divide by 2. __

__The * means multiply, and the *2 means multiply by 2. __

__The word ROUNDDOWN and the 0, means to remove all decimals. That is
numbers are rounded down to zero decimal places, which is the same as rounding
down to an integer.__

__The two quotation marks " " in each expression means do not display
anything. More precisely, this means display the symbols between the
quotation marks, but in this case, there is nothing between the quotation marks,
so nothing is displayed. __

__The IF( ) means if something is true, (or
if a condition exists) perform a specified set of computations, but if it is
false (or if a condition does NOT exist) perform an alternative set of
computations. The computations can involve displaying a specific set of words or
numbers if true, and if false displaying an alternative set of symbols.
__

__A Step-By-Step Translation of the
Computer__

__Instructions, Into Human
Language__

The__ Calculator__'s two sets
of decision-making computer instructions are explained in the following
paragraphs. Both sets of instructions are highlighted, one in yellow, and
the other in green, which corresponds to the pathway they control on the
__Decision Channeling Calculator.__

**=IF((ROUNDDOWN((E8/2),
0)*2)-E8=0, "", E8)** To make this explanation
clear, I will present it in terms of the actual steps it carries out in the
** Decision Channeling Calculator**. This will be presented along
with an example, in red type, using the number 3. That is, assume the user
entered 3 in the pink input box of the Calculator.

**Step one**) Divide the number that the user
entered into the input box by 2 This is done by **(E8/2)**. **Assuming the user entered 3, the result is:
3/2=1.5 **

**Step two**) Round the result from __step
one__ down to zero decimal places (Round down to an integer) This is
done by **(ROUNDDOWN( ,
0)**. **The result from step one
is 1.5, and when it is rounded down to zero decimal places it is equal to
1.**

**Step three**) Multiply the result from step
two by 2 This is done by ***2** **Thus,
from step two we obtained 1, and when 1 is multiplied by two, the result is 2
**

** **

**Step four**) Subtract the number the user
entered in the input box, from the result obtained in step three This is
done by **-E8** **The result from step three is 2, and the user entered 3,
which is 2-3=-1**

**Step five**) If the result from step four is
0 (zero), the number the user entered is even, and it will be blocked from the
yellow path. (The blocking is done by **“”** ) However, if the result
from step four is **NOT** 0 (zero), the number is non-even, and it will be
allowed to pass through the yellow path. This passage, is done by the
**E8** __at the end of the
expression.__**With our example, the
result from step four is -1, so the number entered by the user is non-even, and
thus it will pass through the yellow path.**

** **

**=IF((ROUNDDOWN((E8/2),
0)*2)-E8=0, " ", E8)**

**Interesting note:** The ** location** of the
quotation marks, in this expression mean do not display even numbers, which
results in blocking even numbers from passing through the yellow
path. The location of E8 at the

**=IF((ROUNDDOWN((E8/2),
0)*2)-E8=0, E8, “” )**

This green expression involves the same principle (as explained above) for the yellow pathway. The actual steps it carries out in the Calculator are explained below, along with an example presented in red type, using the number 3. (Assume the user entered 3) Note all of the following calculations are the same as for the yellow path, except for the last step.

**Step one**) Divide the number the user
entered by 2 This is done by **E8/2
Assuming the user entered 3, the result
is: 3/2=1.5 **

**Step two**) Round down the result from step
one to zero decimal places. (Round down to an integer) This is done by
**(ROUNDDOWN(
,0) The
Result from step one is 1.5, and when it is rounded down to zero decimal places
it is equal to 1.**

**Step three**) Then, multiply the result from
step two by 2. This is done by ***2 The
result from step two is 1, thus 1 x 2=2 **

**Step four**) Subtract the number the user
entered from the result from step three. This is done by **-E8**
** With our example, the
result from step three is 2. The user entered 3, which is
2-3=-1**

**Step five**) If the result from step four is
0 (zero), then the user entered an even number. Then it will be
transmitted through the green path. If the result from step four
does not equal 0 (zero), the original number is non-even, and it will be blocked
from the green path. **The result from step four
is -1, so the number entered by the user is non-even, and thus it will be
blocked from the green path.**

__Are Alternative Sets of Computer
Instructions Possible?__

__for
the Decision Channeling Process Discussed Above?__

It is quite likely, that many other sets of computer instructions can be created, to do the decision-making and channeling process described in the previous paragraphs. In general, there are usually many alternative ways of creating computer instructions to achieve an objective. This applies to computer instructions in just about any format, including spreadsheet formulas.

The computer instructions discussed above, in the form of two spreadsheet formulas, are the instructions I derived on the first attempt. I did not try to create alternatives, or more efficient set of instructions, because the first set I created worked perfectly.

However, when computer
instructions are very lengthy, or consume a large amount of computer resources,
it is important to devise the most efficient set possible. Nevertheless
this was not the case with the computer instructions for the __decision-making
and channeling process__ carried out by the Calculator. However,
calculations at the end of the pathways, do consume a significant amount of
computer resources, especially for the JavaScript version. For details
read the next subsection.

__The Computer
Instructions at the____ __

__End of the Green and
Yellow Pathways__

__Computer Resources and the
Calculations__

__In
the Green and Yellow Boxes of the__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

The calculations involved with the decision-making and channeling process involve less than a dozen calculations, but the calculations at the end of the pathways involve over 100 to 200, relatively simple calculations, involving, adding, and taking square roots.

The 100 **plus** calculations
at the end of the yellow and green pathways, (in the green and yellow boxes)
consume far more computer resources then the two sets of decision-making
formulas, discussed above. However, this was not problematic with the
spreadsheet version, which performs over 200 calculations, but it was a
**difficulty** with the JavaScript version. To solve this problem the
calculations the JavaScript version performs, at the end of the yellow and green
pathways, was reduced to about 100 calculations.

The programming concepts involved
with the calculations, at the end of the green and yellow paths of the
Calculator, are much simpler than the two formulas created for the decision
channeling process. However, they require **OVER** 100 formulas, and
many more computations, then the decision channeling process.

The concept of difficulty, as
human beings experience it is NOT the same for the computer. That is
problems that are very difficult for humans, sometimes require very little
computer resources. However, a task that is not very difficult for a human
might consume a large amount of computer resources. An extreme example
involves turning ** large high quality** photographs upside down.
A five-year-old child can quickly and easily perform this task. However,
it is relatively difficult for a computer, in terms of computer resources, and
the huge amount of required computations. Most calculus problems would be
easier to solve for the computer then the above.

I

Note the words: __easier__,
__difficult__, __difficulty__ when applied to the computer, __in this
text,__ refers to all of the following, (when the computer is solving a
problem, or carrying out a task): __the number of computations required;__
__the number of processor cycles required__; __the amount of random access
memory required;__ __the use of any other computer resources__, __the
tendency for the computer to crash.__ When the above factors are
relatively large, the task is difficult, and when they are small, the task is
easy, based on the way I am using the terminology.

__The
Computer Code for the Calculations__

__In
the Yellow and Green Boxes of the__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__The following is based on the
spreadsheet version of the Decision Channeling Calculator, but the basic concept
also applies to the JavaScript version. This material focuses on the calculations that take
place in the green boxes, for even numbers. Keep in mind that
identical calculations take place in the yellow boxes, for non-even
numbers. This material will be easier to understand, if you first
examine the green and blue graphic which is located, several paragraphs below,
at the end of this section.__

In the green boxes at the end of
the __green path, on the left__, a
chain like sequence of adding the number the user entered takes place.
This involves accessing the number the user entered, and placing it in the first
green box. For example, if the user entered

The computer code for the above, in the form of spreadsheet formulas, is as follows:

__In the first green box (which is
cell N32) the formula is =$O$30. (This formula accesses cell O30, which
contains the number the user entered, as a result of the channeling process
through the green pathway.__

__Second green box is cell N34, and it contains =N32+$O$30. ($O$30 access the number the user entered, and the
it is added to the quantity in the first green box, which is cell N32) __

__Third box is cell N36, and it contains __

__Fourth box is cell N38 and it contains =N36+$O$30, ($O$30 access the number entered by user, and it is
added to the quantity in the third box, which is cell N36)__

__Fifth box is cell N40 and it contains =N38+$O$30 ($O$30 access the number entered by user, and it is
added to the quantity in the fourth green box, which is cell N38)__

__The above sequence continues for
over 200 boxes, for the spreadsheet version, and about 100 boxes for the
JavaScript version.__

__(Note, the $ does not mean dollar in these formulas.
Basically, it means unconditionally link to a specific cell, which will maintain
the cell linkage even if the configuration of the spreadsheet is changed.
For example, $O$30 means an absolute
linkage to cell O30.)__

__The
Calculator’s Boxes for Square Roots__

While reading this, examine the
lower portion of the __Decision Channeling Calculator__, and you will see two
sets of yellow boxes, as well as two sets of green boxes. You will also
see yellow and green boxes that have the words: __Square Root of
Number.__ These boxes contain formulas for calculating the square root
of the numbers in the adjacent yellow and green boxes. A portion of the
computer code to do this, for the spreadsheet version, is presented below, in
terms of formulas. The computer code in the JavaScript version performs
the same function.

__Formula in first box =N32^0.5, (This means access the number in
cell N32 and take the square root of
it.)__

__Formula in second box =N34^0.5, (Access the number in cell N34 and take the square root of
it.)__

__Formula in third box
____=N36^0.5____ (Access the number in cell
N36 and take the square root of it.)
__

__Formula in fourth box
____=N38^0.5____ (Access the number in cell
N38 and take the square root of it.)
__

__Formula in fifth box N40^0.5,
etc. (Access the number in cell N40 and
take the square root of it.)__

__There are over 100 of the above
formulas in the spreadsheet version, and a little over 50 in the JavaScript
version.__

I created the above formulas based
on the following notation and concepts. The **^** in these formulas
means take a to number to specific power. For example, 2^2 means two to
the second power, or 2 squared, or 2 multiply by 2, which equals 4.
Another example is 4^3, which is four to the third power, or 4 multiplied by 4,
multiplied by 4 equals 64. Another example is 4^1 =4. Thus, to take
the square root of a number, you simply take the number to the ** one-half
power**. In my formulas I used 0.5 which equal to one-half. For
example, 4^0.5 means the number four to the one half power, which is the same as
saying the square root of four, which equals 2.

__The
graphic below is a copy of a few of the green boxes, from the bottom of the
Decision Channeling Calculator. The formulas on the left, create a
sequence based on the number the user entered. If the user entered X the
sequence is X, 2X, 3X. 4X, 5X, etc. The formulas in the boxes on the right
take the square root of each number in the above sequence. For example,
user enters X. then the calculations on the left are (X^0.5), (2X^0.5),
(3X^0.5), (4X^0.5), (5X^0.5), etc.__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__The
Computer Code from the JavaScript Version__

__Of
the Decision Channeling Calculator____ __

The computer code from the
JavaScript version is very lengthy (about 84 pages.) The explanations of
the code are also relatively complex. **Because of this, the JavaScript code is
explained and presented on two separate web pages.** **If you want to read about the JavaScript
version of the Calculator, and see the code, left click on these
words. This will take you to another webpage. **

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

The __Decision Channeling
Calculator__ has no practical purpose; it is a demonstrational and
experimental device. However, the Calculator demonstrates useful
programming concepts that can be
incorporated into the design of dedicated mathematical software, created in the
spreadsheet or JavaScript formats. (These programming concepts can most
likely be created in other formats besides the above, but I have only applied
these concepts with the spreadsheet and JavaScript formats.) The concepts
are __decision-making, channeling numbers based on specific mathematical
criteria, and multiple calculations performed simultaneously__.

__The
Potential Utility of Decision-Making,__

__And
Channeling Numbers Through Pathways__

The decision-making, and related channeling of numbers through pathways, is relatively simple decision-making. However, the complexity and utility of this type of decision-making could be increased by designing software with more IF programming functions, and more pathways. In theory, this can be coupled with other programming concepts, including advanced mathematics, and artificial intelligence.

In the simplest sense, the decision-making carried out by the Calculator, essentially involves sorting out numbers according to specific criteria, and channeling them to designated locations. This might have some practical application for calculations that are generally done with conventional spreadsheets, or calculation devices created from spreadsheets. Of course, the concept and the related formulas would have to be greatly modified, to fulfill specific needs.

__Multiple Calculations Performed
Simultaneously__

Probably the most useful concept
demonstrated by the Decision Channeling Calculator is multiple calculations
performed simultaneously. I have used this concept in many of the
calculation devices I have created. When applied to the design of
dedicated mathematical software, (including spreadsheets) it can save hours of
work for the ultimate user. That is several, dozens, or even hundreds of
calculations can be performed simultaneously, even if they are very complex,
with out any special skill, with little time and effort, and with a minimum of
data entry. Of course, this can only be achieved with ** sets of
calculations that use the same data.** However,

A simple example is, with the
** length of the radius** of a sphere
you can calculate a sphere’s surface area, its volume, the surface to volume
ratio, the volume to surface ratio, its perimeter, its diameter, the dimensions
and volume of a box big enough to enclose the sphere. That is with
properly designed software, you can obtain all of the above, just by entering
the length of the radius.

An example related to business,
involves the ** monthly expenditures**
and

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

Are there other programs, besides
the __Decision Channeling Calculator__, that make decisions? Of course,
there are many types of software available on the market that make decisions, of
one type or another, based on the way I am using the terminology.
Decision-making is deciding between two or more choices or possibilities, and
responding in some way. For software, the response is always based on some
type of computation.

One of the simplest examples of software making a decision is when to display an error message, and which error message to display. At a far more complex level, speech to text software, (such as Dragon NaturallySpeaking) enters text into a computer, based on spoken words from the user. In this process, this software often has to make decisions, when there is some uncertainty of one or more words that the user verbalized. This might involve, the software selecting a word from several possibilities, which can be based on the probability of occurrence, in terms of other words that were verbalized along with it. However, the decision-making carried out by speech to text software is sometimes incorrect, and the user must make the final correction. However, most speech to text software programs, also have the capability of learning from experience, to make better, or more accurate, decisions. (Incidentally, this is a form of artificial intelligence.)

Even the **IF( ) function**
from spreadsheet software (Excel and OpenOffice) involves a simple form of
decision-making. This usually involves a decision on what to display, in
response to a mathematical result. For example, this can be words that
relate to statistics, such as __above average__, __average__, __below
average__.

Nevertheless, the Decision Channeling Calculator, makes the decision, and takes action based on the decision. This action involves channeling numbers through the green or yellow pathways, and carrying out over 100 calculations, in the green or yellow boxes. This is to some degree different than all of the above.

However, the point here is it is
not uncommon for software to make decisions, with varying degrees of
complexity.

__Speculations on
Decision-Making Software__

__In
General, Can Decision-Making Software__

__Of
Any Kind, Replace, or Partly Replace,__

__Human Decision-Making; a Few
Speculations__

For most purposes, humans are better decision-makers then any available computer technology, because most decision-making involves a large number of human values and goals. Computers can perhaps help humans make better decisions, such as by retrieving relevant information, and carrying out logical and mathematical processes.

However, when there is a massive amount of data that must be processed to make a decision in a fraction of a second, computers are superior to humans. For example to prevent collisions and crashes of airplanes during emergency situations, computer technology can provide an advantage over human judgment and reactions. Computer technology, with appropriate sensing equipment, could probably also be employed to prevent collisions in automobiles.

__Can
Decision-Making Software With Appropriate__

__Hardware And Sensing Equipment
Override__

__Reckless Decision-Making Of
Humans?____ __

Yes; computer technology with sensing and control equipment, could be used to override reckless decisions, judgments, and behaviors, in some cases, such as with automobile drivers and airplane pilots by preventing speeding, excessively sharp turns, and any dangerous maneuver. For example, the 9/11 World Trade Center disaster, at least in theory, could have been prevented, with computer technology designed to sense and override, pilot maneuvers that can result in dangerously low altitudes and collisions with buildings.

__Decision Channeling
Calculator,__

__And Very Large or Very
Small Numbers__

__Very Large and Very Small
numbers____ __

__(in
Terms of Absolute Value) and the__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

The __Decision Channeling
Calculator__ in all three formats, JavaScript, Excel, and OpenOffice, can
handle large numbers with up to15 digits, such as 100,000,000,000,001 and
100,000,000,000,002. However, the calculations in the yellow and green
boxes may be __displayed in scientific notation.__ Very small numbers
may also be __displayed in scientific notation.__

When numbers are excessively
large, (more than 15 digits) the __Decision Channeling Calculator__ cannot
distinguish between even and non-even numbers. There is a mathematical
reason for this, which is, __the difference between even and non-even numbers
diminish (in terms of a ratio or percentage) as numbers increase in
magnitude__.* For example, the difference
between 100 and 101 is 1/100 or 1%, but the difference between 100000 and 100001
is 1/100000 or 0.001%. When we use even larger numbers such as
100,000,000,000,000 and 100,000,000,000,001 the difference becomes extremely
small, 1/100,000,000,000,000 or 0.000000000001%.

The __Decision Channeling
Calculator__ can still distinguish the very tiny difference mentioned above
(0.000000000001%.), but when the difference becomes even smaller, the
__Calculator__ cannot distinguish between even and non-even numbers.
For example, if you put this even number 100,000,000,000,000,000, or this
non-even number 100,000,000,000,000,001 into the Calculator's pink input box, it
will treat them as if they were both even, and they will both be channeled
through the green path.

In addition, when numbers are very large they are likely to be rounded down to an even number, by the software. For example, 100,000,000,000,000,001 is non-even (odd), and it is round downed to an even number, in the Excel version, which is 100,000,000,000,000,000.

*Note: In terms of numbers, as opposed to
a ratio or percentage, the difference in magnitude between an even and non-even
number is always __1 or less than 1 but greater than 0 (zero).__ The
difference in magnitude between an even and odd number is always 1.

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

The __Decision Channeling
Calculator__ can handle negative numbers, and all of the material covered in
this section, applies to both positive and negative numbers. However, with
negative numbers there are no square roots, in terms of real numbers.
(That is the square root of a negative number is imaginary. For example,
the square root of -4 is 2i.) Thus, when negative numbers are entered into
the calculator, the yellow and green boxes with the words __Square Root of
Number__ will have no calculated results. You will see an error message in
these boxes, but the yellow and green boxes that calculate the number sequence,
X, 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, etc., will provide calculated results.

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__Very Large or Very Small
Numbers__

The __Decision Channeling
Calculator__ may display numbers in scientific notation, such as when
calculated results are very large or very small. This applies to all three
versions, Excel, OpenOffice, and the JavaScript version. The letter E is
used to designate scientific notation. The online JavaScript version uses
a lowercase __e__, and the Excel and OpenOffice versions use an uppercase
__E__. This format is illustrated under the following three
headings.

__Examples of the Display of Very
Large Numbers__

__In Scientific Notation, Using the
Letter E.____ __

^{ © David@TechForText.com}

1000000000000000000000 is displayed as 1E+21. The 21, with a plus sign, (+) represents the number of decimal places after the first digit. This can be clarified by counting the 21 red highlighted digits in the following: 1000000000000000000000

Another example is: 1456789666666890000000 is displayed as 1.45678966666689E+21. The 21 represents the number of decimal places after the first digit. This can be seen by counting the digits highlighted in red as follows: 1456789666666890000000

__Examples of the Display of Very
Small Numbers__

__In Scientific Notation, Using the
Letter E__

^{ © David@TechForText.com}

0.000000000000000000001 is displayed as 1E-21. With this example, 21 with the minus sign represent the number of decimal places after the decimal point, as indicated by the 21 digits highlighted in red as follows: 0.000000000000000000001

Another example is: the number 0.0000000000000000000067987 is displayed as 6.7987E-21. Note the 21 with the minus sign (-) represent the number of decimal places after the decimal point. This becomes clear by counting the digits highlighted in red as follows: 0.0000000000000000000067987

__Services Offered From
the Author__

__Of This Website and
the Creator of the__

__Decision Channeling
Calculator__

__I, ____David@TechForText.com,____ design and build user-friendly
software based calculation devices for arithmetic, accounting, currency exchange
rates,
algebra, trigonometry, correlations, calculus, etc. I also create
attractive online calculation devices for websites, and website communication
forms____. This
can include ____communication
forms____ with
built-in calculation devices.__

__I generally make calculation
devices in the Microsoft Excel,__ __OpenOffice.org, and JavaScript
formats, and the web communication forms are in JavaScript. However, I can
work with other spreadsheet formats, besides the above. __

** **

**For a website directory, with links to
the online calculation devices I created, left click on
these words, or go to:** **www.TechForText.com/Math**

I write instructions for the devices I build. I can also write instructions for software and computer devices created by others. In addition, I write articles, material for websites, and advertising for products and services, etc.

For a detailed list of all the services I offer, see:

** **

For a list of all my websites see:

My resume is online at:

** **

** **

__Contact
Information for the Services I Offer__

^{ David@TechForText.com}

** **

I offer my services, on a fee-for-service basis, or possibly based on temporary or permanent employment. If you are interested in my services, and want additional contact information, or more information on the services I can provide, you can email me at:

**Alternatively, you can left click on these
words, for a website communication form.**__ __

I am located in the USA. If you are a great distance from my locality or are in another country, this is not important. I can provide these services worldwide, because the software and websites I make can be delivered through the Internet to any locality, providing there are no governmental restrictions.

.