** **

__Experimental-Elapsed-Timers__

__Created
with Microsoft Excel__

__by
David Alderoty © 2012__

__This
website provides eight software-based elapsed
timers,__

__in
the Excel and JavaScript format, free of charge.__

__The
Excel devices require Microsoft Windows and Excel.__

__All
of these timing devices can also __

__function
as countdown timers.__

__These
devices measure time using a number of units,
including__

__days,
hours, minutes, seconds, deciseconds,
centiseconds,__

__milliseconds,
microseconds, shakes, nanoseconds,__

__picoseconds,
femtoseconds, and attoseconds.__

__All
of these devices, except for numbers 7 and 8, should
be__

__considered
experimental, (or created for demonstration
purposes).__

__This
is because most computers cannot measure time__

__with
the level of precision implied by the readouts.__

__To
contact the author (David Alderoty) use this__

__e‑mail
address: David@TechForText.com, or left click
__

__on the
link below for a website communication
form.__

** **

**Link
for a Website Communication Form**

__Note,
the download links for the eight timing devices
are__

__presented
after the introductory text, and instructions,__

__on
the lower section of this webpage.__

__This
website also provides LINKS to a number of other websites created by the author
that provide free downloads of various types of practical timing devices, and
information on time management, which are presented below:
__

*The
above is a webpage that lists a number of websites*

*www.TechForText.com/Time-Management*

*www.TechForText.com/Timing-Devices-Created-with-Spreadsheet-Software*

*www.TechForText.com/Project-Timers-and-Calendars*

*www.TechForText.com/Elapsed-Timers*

__The
Elapsed Timers Are Also Countdown Timers__

**All
of the timing devices from this website measure elapsed time, as soon as you
enter a start date and time. If you enter a start date and time that is in the
future, the devices function as countdown timers, and when time zero is reached,
the device measures elapsed time. With the exception of device 7, all the
devices display countdown time with a negative sign, such as -59.84 SECONDS. (Device 7
displays countdown with the words: THE
COUNTDOWN TIME IS DISPLAYED BELOW) **

** **

__A
Simplified Description of How These Devices Function__

**Note,
the following is a greatly simplified technical description of how the timing
devices presented on this website function. It is certainly not a complete
description, which would require many pages of highly detailed text.
**

**
The eight timing devices provided by this website were created with Microsoft
Excel, and they were electronically converted to JavaScript and HTML code, using
specialized software. The conventional formulas and formatting code used
to display time in Microsoft Excel has a number of limitations. This
includes an inability to display a negative time, which is essentially a
countdown time. However, the formulas I created for these devices display
both a countdown time with a negative sign, and elapsed time is displayed as
soon as time zero is reached. To do this I did not use Excel‘s
conventional formatting code, or the conventional Excel formulas, for time with
only one exception. Specifically, I used Excel‘s NOW() function, but I had
to modify it, as explained below. **

**
I converted the readout produced by the =NOW() function to a number,
representing the number of days and fractions of a day in decimals, from the
present point in time, to 12 AM January 1, 1900. Actually, Microsoft
Excel, normally measures time in this way, but this is concealed from the user,
as a result of the formatting code use for time. This formatting cannot
handle negative numbers, and it has other limitations as well. Thus, my
first goal was to devise the most efficient method of eliminating the formatting
code. The most efficient way to do this is to modify the function, by
placing &"" on the
right side of the function as follows: =NOW()&"". With this technique, words can be placed in between the quotation
marks, such as =NOW()&"Days" **

**
When the =NOW() function is modified as indicated above, it displays time in a
number format, which is based on a count of days from 12 AM January 1, 1900.
(January 1, 1900 is day one.) For example, on
**

**
**__The
same technique described above, was also used for the input device for the start
time and start Date.__**
Actually, the user enters the start date and time in the conventional
format, but I essentially programmed the Excel device to convert it into a
single number based on the count of the number of days, using
****12
AM January 1, 1900 as day one.****
**

**
With the above technique, I end up with two numbers, which can be subtracted
from each other. When the number that represents the start time is smaller than
the number that represents the current time the subtraction results in a
positive number. For ****ILLUSTRATION
PURPOSES****,
this idea can be represented with the following formula:**

**Current
time**** – Start = ELAPSED TIME, if the
result is negative it is the
COUNTDOWN TIME.**

**
When the start time is in the future, it will be larger than the number that
represents the current date and time. With the above formula this will
result in a negative number, which represents the countdown time. The
concept can be illustrated with the following two
examples.**

**
****AN
****EXAMPLE
OF****
THE ELAPSED TIME:****
I****f
the start time is Thursday, August 16, 2012, 5:30:43 PM, the equivalent number
in terms of days from ****12
AM, January 1, 1900, is****
****41137.7296668982
Days.****
If the current time is Friday, August 17, 2012, 5:30:43 PM, the equivalent
number in terms of days from ****12
AM, January 1, 1900, is****
****41138.7296668982
days. These two numbers can be subtracted from each other, as indicated
with the above formula highlighted in yellow. This results in an
****elapsed
time of 1 Day****.
**

**
AN
****EXAMPLE
OF****
THE COUNTDOWN TIME:****
If the numbers presented above were reversed the result would be the countdown
time, with a negative number. Specifically, let us assume that the
****start
time****
was set as ****Friday,
August 17, 2012, 5:30:43 PM, which can be represented by
****41138.7296668982 days.
Now let us assume the start time was set **

**
The technique described above is very efficient, but I devised another technique
which also circumvents the limitations of Microsoft Excel's formatting code for
time. I used this alternative technique for Timing device 7. This
involved using Microsoft Excel formatting code for a portion of the
calculations. However, I had to create two versions of the formula, one for
elapsed time and another for the negative countdown time. The two formulas
are essentially controlled by an automatic switching mechanism, which disables
one formula, and enables the other, based on whether the initial calculation is
positive or negative. (I created the switching mechanism with Excel’s IF
FUNCTION.) If the number is positive, it is transmitted to the display
with the words:****
The elapsed time is displayed below****.
However, if the initial
calculation results in a negative number, it is converted to a positive number,
and transmitted to the display with the words: THE COUNTDOWN TIME IS DISPLAYED
BELOW.
**

** **

__Timing
Devices for Experimental and Demonstration Purposes__

** **

**Keep
in mind that the timing devices from this website, were primarily created for
experimental and demonstration purposes, with the exception of devices 7 and 8,
which have practical applications. The level of precision provided by the
readouts goes beyond the capability of most computers, and most operating
systems. In addition, I do not have the equipment to measure the true
accuracy of these devices, some of which measure time in trillionths of a
second, and they were not designed for practical applications. However
they are most likely accurate within 100th of a second. When measured and
compared with conventional timing devices, all of the devices from this website
are perfectly accurate. Thus, they may have practical utility if you are
timing human activities, but not if you are timing the duration of a laser beam.
( POSSIBLY, with the appropriate computer set up, you might be able
to time the duration of laser beams, especially with the JavaScript versions,
but the timing devices provided by this website were not designed or tested for
this purpose.) **

**
Nevertheless, these timing devices appear to actually be measuring time with
extraordinarily tiny units. For example, a readout that I got from one of
the devices was 4999999911524.355 PICOSECONDS. Note the three decimal
places on the end of the number. This number is a little less than 5
trillion, and it represents a time interval of less than 5 seconds.
However, from a practical perspective, I would only consider the first
three digits truly accurate, which rounds down to 5 trillion picoseconds.
**

**
For those who are excessively concerned
with significant digits, I created a rounding mechanism that controls the number
of digits that are displayed, in all of the timing devices, except for 7.
(The smallest unit displayed in device 7 is the
second.) The mechanism consists
of a white input box, where the user enters a number representing the number of
digits to display. For example, if you enter 5, no more than five decimal
places will be displayed. If you enter zero there will be no decimal
places displayed. You can also enter
minus numbers in this rounding mechanism. For example, if you enter -12,
with 67431686436722.342 PICOSECONDS, it will be rounded to 67000000000000
PICOSECONDS. If you enter, -11 the display will show 67400000000000
PICOSECONDS.**

**
Because of the tiny units that are use with some of these timing devices, the
numbers are automatically converted to scientific notation when they go beyond
approximately 20 digits. To reach fantastically high numbers only requires
a few minutes, with some of these devices. The scientific notation is
displayed with an upper case E in the Excel versions, and a lower case e in the JavaScript
devices. See the following examples:**

**Excel
version: 4.0684999999869614E+22 ATTOSECONDS**

**JavaScript
version: 4.0684999999869614e+22 ATTOSECONDS**

** **

__General
Instructions__

**(The
following applies to all eight devices, but there are more instructions on each
device.) All of the elapsed timers, from this website are easy to
use. You just TYPE IN a start date, and enter a start time, with pull-down menus.
After you enter a start date and time, you must remember to save the settings,
if you want to close the software and reopen it at a later point in time, with
the same settings. The procedures for saving the Excel and JavaScript
versions are different, and they are explained below.**

**
You can save the Excel version, in the conventional way that you save an Excel
spreadsheet. However, the easiest way to save the Excel version is to
press the s key WHILE HOLDING DOWN
THE CTRL KEY.**

**
The settings in the JavaScript version can only
be saved if you open it with the Firefox Web Browser. To save the
settings, with Firefox, press the s
key WHILE HOLDING DOWN THE CTRL KEY. When this is done,
a dialog box opens, with
a specific location on your computer, such as your document section, or desktop.
Take note of the location, or change it to the location you prefer, and then
click on the save button on the Firefox
dialog box.**

**
Once the start time and start date is set, and the software is saved, as
explained above, it can be closed and reopened, and it will accurately display
the elapsed time or countdown time, even if the settings were entered many
minutes, hours, days, or even years ago.**

**
Actually, the upper and lower limits for start times and start dates for the
devices from this website are the default for most timing devices created with
Microsoft Excel. The defaults go way beyond the limits of conventional
elapsed timers, which may have a range that can be express in hours, but the
Excel ranges can be express in centuries. See below.**

**
The upper limit for the timing
devices provided by this website is
December 31, 9999, at 11:59 PM, which is well over 7985 years from
now. This is based on tests that I carried out using countdown time, with December 31, 9999, at 11:59 PM
as time zero. The timing devices were counting down time accurately, when
compared to a conventional software-based computer clock, with a second hand.
The timing devices were in perfect sync with the second hand of the
computer clock, in spite of the fact that they were set almost 8000 years in the
future. **

**
The lower limit for a start date and time,
for the timing devices is January 1, 1900, at 12:00 AM. This was tested in
a similar way as the above, except elapsed time was obviously involved.
**

** **

__Important
Note about Timing Devices__

__Created
With Spreadsheet Software__

** **

**It
is important to understand that timing devices that were created with Microsoft
Excel, or similar spreadsheet software, must be updated to obtain the correct
time, date, elapsed time, or countdown time. For example, if a timing device
created with spreadsheet software is opened on your computer on August 23, 2012,
at 4:26 PM, it will indicate the above time and date. This date and time
will not change, even if you leave the software opened on your computer for a
week, unless you update it. You can update the spreadsheet versions of the
elapsed timers presented on this website, by placing the cruiser in a green box,
and pressing the delete key. You can also update the time by entering or
deleting numbers, or by opening and closing the software.
**

**
When a JavaScript timing device is created with spreadsheet software, the
concept described above also applies. That is the software will not
register any changes in time unless it is updated as indicated above.
However, with the JavaScript versions, I provide update buttons, which the user
can press to update the date, time, elapsed time, or countdown time.
**

** **

__Basic
Description of The eight Downloads__

**The
eight timing devices from this website are available in JavaScript and the
Microsoft Excel format. The timing devices are provided free of charge, by
downloading in zipped folders. Each zipped folder contains one JavaScript
version, and two Excel versions, which are for Excel 2003, and Excel
2007-2010. In addition, there are two Excel versions that have the words
Formula Study on the filename. These versions provide direct access to the
formulas used to create the timing devices, which is provided for individuals
that are interested in the technical aspects. The JavaScript code
comprising each timing device is also provided in each zipped folder, in a
standard text format, with the file extension: .txt. You can duplicate a timing device,
by cutting and pasting the JavaScript code into your HTML webpage, but you must
retain the copyright notice. (This requires an HTML editor, and basic
skills with HTML.)**

**
The Excel devices require Windows and Microsoft Excel, and the JavaScript
devices should function with any modern operating system, and web browser, but
they were only tested with Windows.**

**
The download links are presented below. Each device is described below,
this description include some of the formulas used in the software. After downloading you should remove
the files from the zipped folder before you use them. This applies to both
the Excel and JavaScript versions.**

** **

__DEVICE
1: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Multiple Units __

**If
you want to download device 1 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
software-based elapsed timer measures and displays time, with a number of units
(simultaneously) including: days, hours, minutes, seconds, deciseconds,
centiseconds, milliseconds, microseconds, shakes, nanoseconds, picoseconds,
femtoseconds, and attoseconds. This software has a separate display for
each of the units mentioned above. This device was created primarily to
demonstrate the display in measurement of the units of time mentioned
above.**

** **

**If
you want device 1 in an online JavaScript format left click on these words. This
will immediately open in your web
browser.****
Note, device 1, is also embedded
directly in this webpage, which is presented after the downloads several
paragraphs below.**

** **

__MORE
INFORMATION ON DEVICE 1__**)
Device 1 has 16 displays. Each of the displays has a formula that
calculates the elapsed time and/or countdown time. These formulas are
listed below. I created these formulas, to function in Microsoft Excel,
and they are somewhat unconventional in structure. The formulas will
not function in a conventional Excel spreadsheet, because they are dependent on
other formulas, input boxes, and pull-down menus. In the following
formulas the function, NOW() represents the current date and time, and
-$D$41 represent the
start time and start date entered by the user. **

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41),
D)&" DAYS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24,
D)&" HOURS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60,
D)&" MINUTES"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60,
D)&" SECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*10,
D)&" DECISECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*100,
D)&" CENTISECONDS "**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000,
D)&" MILLISECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000,
D)&" MICROSECONDS "**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*100000000,
D)&" SHAKES"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000,
D)&" NANOSECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000,
D)&" PICOSECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000000,
D)&" FEMTOSECONDS"**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000000000,
D)&" ATTOSECONDS"**

** **

**The
following three formulas are also in device 1. These formulas are based on
cells that were renamed
as: DAYS, HOURS, MINUTES, and SECONDS. In these renamed cells, the
elapsed time or countdown time is separated into days, hours, minutes, and
seconds. This is carried out with a number of other formulas that are not
shown. **

** **

**=Days&"
Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&"
Minutes"**

** **

**=Days&"
Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds
"&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, 0)**

** **

**=Days&"
Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds
"&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, RD)**

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
2: Experimental Elapsed Timer for__

__Seconds
and Fractions of a Second.__

**If
you want to download device 2 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
elapsed timer measures time in seconds, and fractions of a second. The
formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in
red type:**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-D39)*24*60*60,
D)&" SECONDS"**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
3: Experimental Elapsed Timer for __

__Milliseconds
and Fractions of a Millisecond__

**If
you want to download device 3 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
elapsed timer measures time in milliseconds, and fractions of a
millisecond. A millisecond is 1000th of a second. The formula used
to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
**

** **

**=ROUND((NOW()-D39)*24*60*60*1000,
D)&" MILLISECONDS"**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
4: Experimental Elapsed Timer for __

__Microseconds
and Fractions of a Microsecond.__

**If
you want to download device 4 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
elapsed timer measures time in microseconds, and fractions of a
microsecond. A microsecond is one millionth of a second. The formula
used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red
type:**

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$39)*24*60*60*1000000,
D)&" MICROSECONDS "**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
5: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Nanoseconds__

**If
you want to download device 5 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
elapsed timer measures and displays time in nanoseconds, which is 1 billionth of
a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time
is presented below in red type:**

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000,
D)&" NANOSECONDS"**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
6 Experimental Elapsed Timer for Picoseconds__

**If
you want to download device 6 left click on these
words.**

** **

**This
elapsed timer measures time in picoseconds, which is one trillionth of a second.
The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time
is presented below in red type:****
**

**=ROUND((NOW()-$D$39)*24*60*60*1000000000000,
D)&" PICOSECONDS"**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
7: Elapsed Timer and Countdown Timer__

__Measures
Time in Days, Hours, Minutes, and Seconds__

**If
you want to download device 7 left click on these
words.**

** **

**Unlike
the timing devices presented above; this software is a practical timing device,
and it measures time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. This device
becomes a COUNTDOWN timer, if you enter a start time that is in the future, in
the same way as the other devices presented above. However, this device
uses words to indicate elapsed time and countdown time, which are: The elapsed time is displayed
below, and THE
COUNTDOWN TIME IS DISPLAYED BELOW Device 7 uses two
formulas to display the elapsed time or countdown time, which are presented
below in red type:**

** **

**=ROUND(D40,0)&"
day, "**

** **

**=IF($C$35>NOW(),
C25, (NOW()-$C$35))**

** **

** **

** **

** **

__DEVICE
8 is a Practical Device Similar to the Above__**
**

**If
you want to download device 8 left click on these
words**

** **

**This
software-based elapsed timer measures and displays time in days, hours, minutes,
and seconds and fractions of a second. It is similar to device 7, but it
functions on a somewhat different principle, with a special set of formulas I
devised. These formulas separate the elapsed time, or countdown time, into
days, hours, minutes, and seconds. The formulas are in separate cells
which are named: Days,
Hours, Minutes, and Seconds. The countdown
time is presented with negative numbers. This concept eliminates the need
to use Excel's formatting code for time, which cannot handle negative numbers.
The formula in the display is written in terms of the cell names, which
are Days, Hours, Minutes, and Seconds. This formula is presented below
in red type: **

** **

**=Days&"
Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds
"&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, RD)**

** **

** **

** **

__Below
There is an Embedded Version of Device 1__