Chicago Manual of
Style, is Highly Complex
Web-Based Information From Other Authors, on The Chicago Manual of Style, are
Link to this Chapter
subject discussed in this chapter is the Chicago Manual of Style, and it
is complex. Many of the rules in the CMS style, very depending on several
factors, such as the number of authors, and the type of publication. In
addition, CMS style uses footnotes, endnotes, or the author-date system, each
of which has a slightly different set of citation rules. To cover all of these
variations in style and citation rules would require at least 600 pages.
compensate for the relatively short presentation in this chapter, I am
presenting hyperlinks to web-based material from other authors to cover the
subject in detail. This chapter was written with the assumption that readers,
who wanted to master the subject, would use the hyperlinks to access the
The blue underlined words in this chapter are the
hyperlinks, to access the websites from other authors, which contain videos,
articles, tutorials, and other useful material.
you truly want to master the CMS style, with all its exceptions, and
variations, you should purchase the latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
hyperlinks that are directly in the body of the text are to access
sources that were used for this chapter. The links at the end of sections,
and subsections are for additional information, alternative points of view, or
to support or supplement the material in this text.
a link fails, use the blue underlined words as a search phrase, with www.Google.com
History, and Best Source for CMS
What is CMS Style?
CMS style is commonly used by professional editors and writers, and it is more
versatile than MLA and APA. CMS, stands for the Chicago Manual of
Style, which is in its 16th edition, 2010. There
is an online version of this book, which is available on a yearly subscription.
can also sign up for a 30-day free subscription, to the Chicago manual of style. To access the
webpage, to sign up for the subscription, left click on the blue underlined
words, presented above.
“The History of The
Chicago Manual of Style”
source for the following is a webpage from the Chicago Manual of Style
Online, which can be accessed by left clicking on the above heading.
Chicago Manual of Style has a history of over 100 years. The origin of
this manual started as a style sheet in 1891, specifically for the needs of the
University of Chicago Press. This eventually developed into the first edition
of the CMS, which was published by the University of Chicago Press, in 1906.
At that time, it was called the MANUAL
can access a PDF version of the 1906 edition, by left clicking on “MANUAL
OF STYLE” Note this PDF file is about 20 MB, and
it may take up to a minute to download. The book is about 200 pages, and when
it opens, the first two or three pages are blank. This book is no longer
useful as a style guide, but it is interesting from a historical perspective.
What is the Best Source for the CMS
best source for the CMS Style is the latest edition of the online Chicago
Manual of Style. However, I cannot create links to this source, because it
is password protected. Thus, I am using as a primary source for this
Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue OWL) ”Chicago Manual of
Style 16th Edition”
Purdue opening webpage for CMS states: “Contributors:
Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie
Pinkert, Allen Brizee Last Edited: 2014-02-07 11:51:52”
Page Layout and
Citation Style of the CNS
Page Layout and
Formatting for the CMS Style
formatting suggested by the CMS style, is nicely illustrated at the Purdue OWL
with a sample
paper. I am using this as a primary source for the material
in this section.
can range from 1 inch to as much as 1.5 inches, with the CMS style. The type
should be at least 10 points, ideally 12 points, in an easy-to-read typeface
such as Times New Roman. Numbering starts on the first page, in
the upper right corner, in the margin.
Citation in the CMS
The CMS style is quite
flexible, and it provides two citation styles.
The first is footnotes
or endnotes, with a bibliography at the end of the paper. The other
alternative is the author-date style, with, a list of references on the
end of the paper. This is explained, with examples, in the following
Basic Formula For CMS Footnote Citations
The Purdue OWL a sample
mentioned above, is in the CMS footnote citation format, and I am
using it as a source for the following paragraphs.
am representing the CMS citation configuration for footnotes with the following
and second name, Title of the
source*, edition, Publisher, Publication date, Page number(s)
The titles of book, journals, and magazines, are italicized, but titles of
chapters and articles are placed in quotation marks.
formula is illustrated with the following examples: The examples are in brown
type, and the books, authors, and statements are hypothetical.
In The Book of Health,
Mike Doe, states “that the excessive consumption of vitamin A is unhealthy.”1
Footnote on the bottom of the page in the
1 Mike Doe, The Book of Health, second edition,
(Doe Publishing Company, 2007), 19
the same author and book is used for more than one quote, in a
paper, the first footnote provides all the details, but the subsequent footnotes,
can be shorter. The shorter footnote should contain Author's last name, and the “Name of book” See the following example.
Doe’s philosophy, is
moderation and caution, with vitamins and medications.2
Footnote on the bottom of
the page in the margin.
2 Doe, “The Book of Health,”126
Endnotes Are Used Instead of Footnotes
The above examples are illustrations
of CMS style with footnotes. However, endnotes can be used as an alternative,
which will display Authors first and second name,
Title of the source*, edition, Publisher, Publication
date, Page number(s) either at the end of the chapter,
or at the end of the paper. If you use the end of the paper, you
should create a page with the title:
CMS Author-Date Style
I am using as a primary
source for this subsection, a sample paper written in the author-date style, from
the Purdue OWL website. This paper can be accessed by left clicking on
the following link: “CMS
Author Date Sample Paper” For
direct access left click on these words. I
also used as a reference for this section the online version of the Chicago
Manual of Style, 16th edition, 2010. “15.9 Author-date
references—examples and variations”
CMS Author-Date Style
is similar to the APA style, and I am representing it with the following
For In-text Citations
Using parentheses* (Author's last name Publication date, Page number)
There are a number of ways that the quote, paraphrase, and authors findings,
can be presented without the parentheses. However, it should include the
author’s last name, publication date, and page number.
the end of the paper, there is a page titled: References, which I am
representing with the following formula: