SECTION-1) THREE ARTICLES ON
TIME MANAGEMENT BY DAVID ALDEROTY
Functionality and Dysfunctionality
of Time Management Strategies, and
Job Performance in the Business Environment
What is time management? Time management consists of various techniques or strategies that are used to save time and effort. There are a large number of methods of saving time, which in actual practice can be functional or dysfunctional. In general, dysfunctional time management strategies are more likely to occur in the business environment, where the personal interest and the goals of the employees and managers, are different than the organizational goals. Usually, a profit-making organization wants to make a maximum amount of profit, and increase the value of its stock, which often requires providing good products and services to their customers. Nonprofit organizations may also be focused on revenue, and fulfilling their primary objective, which usually involves providing some type of service to specific populations. The personal goals of the employees or managers may be focused on reducing their workload, and perhaps leaving work early.
NOTE: The above usually does not apply to top level management, who have a financial interest in a company, or to individuals that are extremely interested in their work. The problems presented in this article are probably more likely to occur in nonprofit organizations, especially with middle level managers, supervisors, coordinators, and individuals that provide services that cannot easily be evaluated in terms of quality and organizational objectives.
The above discrepancy in goals between employees and the organizations they work for under certain conditions can lead to dysfunctional time management strategies, (as well as other problems) from the point of view of the organization, or from the perspective of customers or clients, or even from the point of view of other employees. This happens when employees reduce the quality of the services they are providing to save time, effort, or to avoid tasks that they find excessively difficult, problematic, or distasteful. This can involve employees or managers that focus on meeting the official organizational requirements, while performing tasks in a perfunctory way, without considering the quality or usefulness of the services that they are providing.
The above can include skillful report writing that conveys a greatly exaggerated or distorted picture the quality and usefulness of work that was completed, which in some cases is all that is require to meet the official organizational requirements. With many occupations it is difficult to evaluate the quality of services that are provided, and it might be relatively easy to evaluate other factors, such as the subjective evaluation of supervisors, or explanations presented in written reports. This might not relate to the true value of the quality of the services that were provided, in terms of achieving organizational objectives.
Dysfunctional time management strategies, along with a number of other managerial problems can be reduced or eliminated, with ongoing job performance assessment, based on criteria that are precisely aligned with obtaining organizational objectives. For example, instead of evaluating a written report of a sales manager, evaluate the level of sales, and profits that resulted from his or her efforts, on a weekly basis. Assessments of this nature should be provided to the employee on an ongoing basis, as feedback, which can lead to improvements in job performance.
The example used above, of a sales manager, is a simplified illustration, because numbers can easily be calculated in terms of the amount of sales, and the resulting profits. With many jobs, it is difficult to find exact criteria that can be measured, which relate precisely to organizational goals. It may be extremely difficult to evaluate whether the efforts of a specific manager is useful, useless, or entirely counterproductive in terms of organizational objectives.
With lower-level employees, such as assembly line workers, and maintenance personnel involved with cleaning, it is less difficult to devise assessment criteria that relate to organizational objectives. This is because there efforts result in physical changes, such as the number of items assembled, and the degree of cleanliness of the facility. Most, higher level occupations involve services that do NOT result in physical changes that can be easily evaluated, such as with supervisors, managers, and coordinators. Thus, it might not be feasible to devise perfect job assessment criteria in terms of true organizational objectives, for many of the employees. However, in such cases, experimenting with various assessment strategies that approximately relate to organizational objectives might be the best approach. The following ideas may be helpful in this regard:
Written reports created by the employee, or written by supervisors about the employee, might provide erroneous information in many situations. However if a report is accompanied by verifiable evidence, that relates to organizational goals, such as sales figures, then it is likely to be quite useful.
Customer or client evaluations, on survey forms, for services provided by individual employees, can be a very useful job assessment strategy. It is also a very useful method of influencing employees to provide high quality services, if they know that they will be evaluated by customers or clients. This type of feedback provides the information needed by employees to make corrections and improvements in their job performance.
Periodic spot checking, to evaluate job performance, is likely to be dysfunctional in many situations. This is because some individuals will provide a low level of service, most of the time, when they do not expect to be evaluated. In addition, spot checking does not provide the continuous feedback that is useful in improving job performance. Instead of spot checking, try to devise methods that involve ongoing and continuous monitoring of job performance, with a focus on organizational objectives. This ideal might not be feasible in many situations, but attempting to approach the ideal might be quite realistic, and beneficial.
A useful assessment criteria that would be in tune with almost all organizational objectives, involves the evaluation of the level of conflict and stress that an employee creates within the organization, which obviously should be as low as possible. This type of assessment is usually more relevant to managers and to individuals that have some type of authority position. It might not be difficult to spot problematic employees in this regard, because it is likely to result in complaints from other employees and customers to upper management, which may be coupled with lawsuits.
Problems of the type mentioned above, may be excessively high when individuals are placed in authority positions, that do NOT have the emotional temperament, training, and skills, that are required for the position. Individuals in this category might, use hostile and aggressive strategies to deal with the individuals under them, to the point where it results in significant problems for the organization, as well as its employees and customers. Problems of this nature appear to be relatively common, and they are very often ignored by upper management. Correcting these problems can make the work environment more pleasant and more productive for all.
Developing an understanding of what constitutes functional and dysfunctional time management strategies can be quite productive. With this understanding, dysfunctional strategies can be discouraged by upper management, and productive strategies can be encouraged. This can be difficult, because the functionality or dysfunctionality of a time management strategy, is usually determined by the way it is applied, in a specific situation. This is discussed in detail in the article presented below.
The Relativity of Functional and Dysfunctional
Time Management Strategies
Whether or not a specific time management strategy is functional or dysfunctional depends on the circumstances. For example, multitasking can be functional, when carrying out tasks that involve idle time periods, such as doing laundry, which involves waiting for the washing machine to complete its washing cycle. Traveling is another example, especially when it involves long trips by train, bus or plane. With activities of this nature, multitasking can be quite productive, and it is relatively easy to read, study, work with a laptop computer, and/or make phone calls. Multitasking, is likely to be a dysfunctional time management strategy when you are working with heavy machinery, driving an automobile, or performing cognitive work, such as writing, reading important material, or engaging in serious business conversations.
Another example of a common time management strategy is skim reading or speed-reading. This can be highly functional, if the material you are reading is unimportant, or if you are thoroughly familiar with the text. However, if you are reading a complex document, especially if it is technical in nature, skim reading can be problematic. If you are reading the document to acquire new knowledge, or to make a decision, skim reading might be extremely dysfunctional. Part of the reason for this is the risk of inadvertently substituting your assumptions, for the material you skipped over. This can lead to erroneous conclusions, and poor decision-making.
Dysfunctional time management strategies, can involve saving time, at the expense of other people. A good example of this are telephone answering systems that provide recordings with an excess series of required button pressing, before you get through to the individual you want to speak to. This sometimes leads to a recording requesting that the caller should leave a message. Systems of this nature can be functional if they do not waste the time and effort of the callers.
The idea to keep in mind is a time management strategy that works well in one situation, might be dysfunctional in another set of circumstances. In addition, how the time management strategy is applied can often determine whether it is useful, useless, or counterproductive. Thus, the ideal is to EXPERIMENT with various time management strategies to determine WHAT WORKS WELL FOR YOU in a particular situation. You might find that the time management strategies that work well a home may not always be useful in school or in the workplace.
A List Of Time Management Strategies,
That I Have Found To Be Very Useful
The time management strategies presented in the following list can be divided into two categories, which are conventional and unconventional. Most of the conventional strategies are presented in many publications on time management, and most of them save time in a direct way. The unconventional strategies may not seem like time management techniques, but they can save a considerable amount of time indirectly, primarily by avoiding or minimizing time-consuming problems. The conventional strategies are presented first, with black subheadings, which are followed by the unconventional strategies, which have red subheadings.
REDUCING TRAVELING TIME) Try to reduce the time you spend traveling. You may be able to achieve this by avoiding unnecessary appointments, or unnecessary trips to stores. The need for face-to-face meetings that require travel can sometimes be eliminated, with one or more phone calls. Where you decide to live, and work, can greatly affect the amount of traveling time you must do throughout the week. Careful planning, and good decision-making, in this regard, can result in saving an hour or more per day on traveling time.
WHILE YOU ARE WAITING OR TRAVELING, MULTITASK) When you expect to spend time in a waiting room, or when you will be traveling by plane, bus, or train, prepare yourself with activities that you can perform while you are waiting. This can involve, reading important documents, working with a laptop computer, or simply listening to recorded material, for work or pleasure.
Reduce Distractions) When you are engaged in important work, or activities, try to reduce or eliminate all distractions, such as from phone calls, and face-to-face interruptions. In addition, it is necessary to exercise will power, so that you do not distract yourself, with e-mail, the Internet or with anything else.
MAINTAIN AN ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT) An orderly environment means a home and/or a workplace where you can quickly find everything you need to complete the work that relates to your primary goals, and to carry out your daily activities quickly and easily.
WHEN YOU MISPLACE AN ITEM) When you misplace an item, avoid spending an excessive amount of time searching for it. Consider completing your work without the missing item, if that is feasible. Sometimes the best strategy is to simply purchase another version of the misplaced item. In general, buy two or more of the items that you frequently misplace. If you have a tendency to misplace important documents, make multiple copies of the documents and place them in two or more draws, closets, or other storage facilities in your home or workplace.
SET PRIORITIES) People are often faced with an excessive workload, and/or a large number of optional recreational activities. This can involve an excessively large number of tasks that cannot be completed. The solution is to focus on completing the most important items. Focusing on completing work and activities that relate to your long-term goals, financial well-being, academic success, and health is usually the best strategy. This can involve one or more to do lists, for the day, week, and/or month, with important work that you want to complete.
USE GOOD EQUIPMENT FOR THE TASKS THAT YOU FREQUENTLY CARRY OUT) Good equipment, including tools, that relate to the type of work or activities you carry out can save a great deal of time and effort. This is assuming you are willing to learn how to use the equipment in an efficient and safe way. This includes replacing old equipment that frequently malfunctions and waste time, with newer equipment. Examples include: high-quality power tools for people that do carpentry work, and for people that do office or academic work, a modern computer, equipped with appropriate Software.
UTILIZING THE ASSISTANCE OF OTHERS CAN SAVE TIME). Sometimes asking family, friends, or coworkers to help you complete a task is a good time savings strategy. This is especially the case if they can complete part or all of the task quicker and/or better than you can. Sometimes, hiring trained individuals is the best strategy, especially for household repairs, that you cannot efficiently carry out.
AVOID TASKS THAT ARE LIKELY TO WASTE YOUR TIME, OR RESULT IN FAILURE) Do-it-yourself home repairs, is an example of a potential time waster, if you do not have the tools, skills, and patients to successfully complete the job. Another example, is taking courses that may lead to failure, because you do not have the required academic background, the time, and/or patience to adequately complete the coursework. The idea here is to carefully think, and rethink before investing time and effort in any major task, and while you are doing this, try to avoid over optimistic thinking. Keep in mind, it is necessary to evaluate whether you have adequate knowledge, skills, experience, equipment, time, patients, and money, to successfully complete the task.
AVOID CONFLICT) Avoiding or minimizing conflict with others, even when it might be justified, is a good way to save time, and emotional energy. This includes avoiding or minimizing: domestic conflict, hostile arguments with acquaintances, and lawsuits. Problems of this nature can waste a considerable amount of time, partly because they can have a distracting effect throughout your day. There are many strategies that are useful for avoiding or minimizing conflict, and below there are seven good techniques:
1) One of the simplest and most effective strategies to prevent or minimize conflict is simply to be polite, kind, understanding, sympathetic, and patient with others, even when you feel justifiably angry.
2) Another technique that can be combined with the above is to make attempts to understand the other person's point of view, and NEEDS. With this strategy, you ATTEMPT to satisfy the NEEDS of the individual you are in conflict with, in a way that minimizes your losses, and maximizes your gains.
3) A technique related to the above, involves an educational process where conflicting parties educate each other, over an extended period of time, about their point of view and needs. This usually must be accompanied with item 4, presented below.
4) Negotiation and compromise can sometimes stop, reduce or prevent conflict. Often the losses associated with a compromise, are less than the losses that would result from an ongoing conflict. It is necessary to keep this in mind when negotiating.
5) Occasionally, conflict can be prevented or reduced by explaining your situation to the individual you are in conflict with, in a friendly and noncritical way. When this is done, it is important to use words and concepts that the other individual can relate to, in a sympathetic and understanding way.
6) Avoid individuals and situations that are likely to result in conflict) Most of us, at one time or another, probably encountered problematic individuals and situations that tend to precipitate conflict. It is usually a good idea to avoid individuals and situations of this nature, if it is feasible to do so.
7) Consider breaking up, or modifying, relationships that result in excessively high levels of conflict) Sometimes the best strategy to reduce conflict is to end a relationship. This might necessitate finding new employment, finding a new friend, or even finding a new mate. An alternative is to change the nature of the relationship. For example, if you are an adult and you still live with your mother, and there is much conflict, this can be remedied by modifying the relationship. This can be achieved by moving to your own apartment, and occasionally visiting your mother.
MAINTAIN GOOD HEALTH HABITS) Good health habits can probably save more time than any other strategy, because it can reduce the number of days that you are ill, and it can increase your life expectancy. Bad health habits have the opposite effect. Especially important is maintaining proper body weight, and an ongoing exercise program that is appropriate for your physical condition, coupled with good nutrition.
AVOID UNNECESSARY RISKS AND ACCIDENTS) Accidents can result in injuries, which can waste weeks or months of valuable time. Time-consuming and painful problems of this nature can be avoided or minimized, with the following strategy.
Accidents are more likely to happen when you are distracted by sleepiness, fatigue, stress, illness, unpleasant or pleasant circumstances. Thus, when you are faced with any of the above distractions, it is best to avoid or minimize any activities that are risky or can result in accidents, especially driving an automobile. When faced with distractions, it is a good idea to perform all activities very cautiously and perhaps also slowly. This is because most daily activities can result in serious accidents, such as slipping or falling in the shower, or falling down a flight of stairs.
MAKE THE TASKS THAT YOU DO, ENJOYABLE, OR LESS UNPLEASANT.) Tasks are easier to complete if they are enjoyable, and unpleasant tasks may require more time, because it is likely to lead to some procrastination. How to make a task pleasant usually requires personal experimentation.
However, trying to determine what makes the task unpleasant for you may help you devise a method of reducing the unpleasantness. For example, a major contributor to the unpleasantness of academic studies or any type of work that involves writing, reading, and staring at a computer screen is eyestrain, as well as strain on the entire body from sitting in one position, for an extended period of time. This discomfort can be eliminated, by frequently changing sitting positions, and moving your eyes away from your work for several seconds, every few minutes. This ideally should be coupled with mild exercise approximately every hour, such as stretching and walking for five minutes.
AVOID SACRIFICING QUALITY, TO SAVE TIME) One of the easiest ways of saving time with daily activities, schoolwork, and job related tasks, is to focus on completing the work as quickly as possible, without considering quality. This can no doubt save time, especially with school studies, and activities performed in the workplace. However, this is a very dysfunctional strategy, which is likely to lead to failure, unemployment, and financial problems, all of which can waste a tremendous amount of time. The optimum strategy in most situations is to focus on high quality outcomes. This perhaps can include an effort, or a set of strategies that work well for you, to achieve a high quality outcome, with a minimum investment in time.
To be successful with the above strategies, (or any other time management technique) it is usually necessary to practice with them over a period of weeks. As you practice, and evaluate the results you obtain, it may be necessary to modify some, or all of the strategies, so that they work effectively for you. To clarify, I will rephrase as: This process involves ongoing practice, coupled with a feedback and modification process, where you modify the strategies over a period of time, based on the results you obtain. This is to be done with the goal of improving the strategies, so that they work optimally for your overall life situation and needs.
LINKS TO WEBSITES, PDF DOCUMENTS, AND VIDEOS
CREATED BY OTHER AUTHORS
This section provides a huge quantity of information on time management, from MANY AUTHORS. This involves Internet links to all of the following:
Websites that list many links to articles on time management
Webpages that have information on time management
PDF documents, that deal with time management
Videos that explain strategies for saving and budgeting time
This section provides links to websites, videos, and PDF documents created by OTHER AUTHORS. If a link fails, enter the yellow highlighted words into Google’s search engine, www.Google.com. If the link that failed is for a video use www.Video.Google.com.
When you left click on a link for a video, a web page will open, which usually has a large number of high-quality videos that are related to the words on the hyperlink you clicked on. However, when you click on the link it will usually start only one video automatically, which may take a few seconds. If the video does not start automatically, left click on the link provided by the author of the video. This link is usually in the center of the screen.
Websites and PDF Documents
Created BY OTHER Authors
Words on Website: Time Management Tips For College Students:
Words on Website: Time Management Articles Library:
Words on Website: Articles on Time Management:
Words on Website: Time Management Articles, Books and Websites:
Words on Website: Time Management Guides and Articles:
Words on Website: Articles tagged with: time management:
Words on Website: Articles with tips on time management techniques:
Words on Website: Get Everything Done:
Words on Website: Managing Time Article by Brian Tracy:
Words on Website: TIME MANAGEMENT ARTICLES:
Words on Website: Time Management Nick Repak Director, Grad Resources:
Words on Website: Articles about "Time management:
Words on Website: Time management systems have become exceedingly popular in recent years:
Words on Website: Time Management Beat Work Overload. Be More Effective. Achieve More:
Words on Website: Stress Management and Time Management:
Words on Website: Time Management Techniques 101 Functional Versus Dysfunctional By Mary Segers: http://ezinearticles.com/?Time-Management-Techniques-101---Functional-Versus-Dysfunctional&id=4236081
Words on Website: 11 Solid Ways to Improve Your Time Management Skills:
Words on Website: Time Management Strategies To Achieve Your Goals: http://realgoalgetter.com/TimeManagementStrategiesToAchieveYourGoals.pdf
Words on Website: Time Management:
Words on Website: Problems You Should Deal With To Become Effective At Managing Your Time!:
Words on Website: Time management From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Words on Website: Time management series:
Words on Website: Managing Your Time:
Words on Website: Personal Time Management Guide:
Words on Website: 10 tips for time management in a multitasking world:
Words on Website: Time Management:
Words on Website: 11 Time Management Tips: http://sbinfocanada.about.com/cs/timemanagement/a/timemgttips.htm
Words on Website: Time Management One step at a time!:
Words on Website: Personal Time Management for Busy Managers by Gerard M Blair: www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art2.html
Words on Website: Time management systems have become exceedingly popular in recent years:
Words on Website: Time Management for Leaders:
Words on Website: A Personal Time Survey:
PDF Document on Time Management,
Created By A Number Authors
Words on PDF document: 10 strategies for better Time Management:
Words on PDF document: DEVELOPING TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS:
Words on PDF document: Rate your time management skills:
Words on PDF document: What is Time Management?:
Words on PDF document: TIME MANAGEMENT FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS:
Words on PDF document: Good time management is essential to success at university:
Words on PDF document: Project Execution Kit: Sample PDF files
Words on PDF document: Time Management For University Students
Words on PDF document: Overcoming Time-Zone Differences:
Words on PDF document: Time Management More Time, Less Stress:
Words on PDF document: Documents related to » manufacturing time management .pdf:
Words on PDF document: Time Management Marc Mancini:
Words on PDF document: Time Management Get the Most Out of the Time You Have:
Words on PDF document: The successful Person’s Guide to Time Management:
Words on PDF document: Project Time Management:
Words on PDF document: Manage Your Energy,Not Your Time:
Words on PDF document: Are you stuck in time management treacle?:
Words on PDF document: Effective Time Management:
Words on PDF document: Time Management for Creative People:
Words on PDF document: Tips for Managing Your Time and Getting Ahead:
Words on PDF document: Effective Learning Service Time Management:
Words on PDF document: Questions to Ask Yourself about Time Management:
Words on PDF document: Journal of Managerial Psychology:
Words on PDF document: Time Management for System Administrators:
Words on PDF document: A Guide for Time Management:
Words on PDF document: The Effects of Online Time Management Practices on Self-Regulated Learning:
Videos on Time Management
Created By A Number Authors
The following is a Yahoo search page, with many videos on Time Management:
The following is a YouTube search page, with many videos on Time Management:
Words on Video: Time Management 101 Online Course – UniversalClass:
Words on Video: One Simple Time Management Rule for Increased Productivity:
Words on Video: Time Management and the 80-20 Rule:
Words on Video: Time management tips, time management skills video:
Words on Video: Time Management Tips Are Really Self-Management Tips!:
Words on Video: Study Skills-Time Management Part 1 – Prioritizing:
Words on Video: 10 Effective Time Management Tips:
Words on Video: Time Management for University Students:
Words on Video: Time Management Strategies: Stop Wasting Time!:
Words on Video: Time Management Exercise:
Words on Video: Time Management for Teachers (v2):
Words on Video: Lecture - 31 Project Time Management:
Words on Video: Want To Accomplish More EVERY Day? Time Management!:
Words on Video: My Time Management Tips:
Words on Video: Time Management - Important or Urgent?:
Words on Video: Time Management Essentials PART 1:
Words on Video: Time Management Essentials PART 2:
Words on Video: Time Management Tips: How to Set Priorities:
Words on Video: Clutter Video Tip: How to Manage Your Time, Part 1, Capture:
Words on Video: Clutter Video Tip: How to Manage Your Time, Part 2: COMMIT:
Words on Video: Clutter Video Tip: How to Manage Your Time, Part 3: CUE:
Words on Video: Clutter Video Tip: How to Manage Your Time, Part 4: COMPLETE:
Words on Video: Clutter Video Tip: How to Manage Your Time, Part 5: CORRECT:
Words on Video: "Time Management" by Randy Pausch, November 2007:
Words on Video: Darryl Cross - Time Management:
Words on Video: Time Management Training Activities:
Words on Video: The Essential Skills Series - Time Management:
Words on Video: Top 10 Time Management Mistakes:
Words on Video: 10 Hot Tips - Managing Conflict:
Words on Video: 7 Effective Time Management Techniques:
Words on Video: Tips for Freelance Work Time Management:
Words on Video: Time Management for Students:
Words on Video: Mary Kay Ash on time management:
Words on Video: Project Time Management:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 1 of 6:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 2:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 3:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 4:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 5:
Words on Video: Brian Tracy Personal Time Management 6:
The following is a webpage with a list of videos by Brian Tracy,. which include a number of videos that relate directly or indirectly to time management.
Words on Video: Time Management Strategies and Techniques:
Words on Video: Harold Taylor Time Management Expert - Humorous video describing disorganization:
SECTION 3 WEBSITES AND SOFTWARE
CREATED BY DAVID ALDEROTY
Excel devices, I created in the summer of 2012
Website-1) Has Over 30 Software-Based Timing Devices
Created For Demonstration And Educational Purposes
1) DESCRIPTION: Website-1, provides 30 software-based devices that measure time in one form or another. This includes, clocks, clocks for multiple time zones, elapsed timers, project planners that calculate a series of dates, etc. This includes a number of simple devices that I created to demonstrate the way Microsoft Excel's formatting code affects the display of dates and time. These timing devices are primarily for demonstration and educational purposes, because they are on a single graphic interface. However, most of the timing devices Are available on the websites presented below, in a format that is suitable for practical use.
Download links for website-1
Website-2) Software-Based Clocks in the Excel and
TITLE: Clocks Created with Spreadsheet Software
The Clock for Multiple Time Zones is a system of nine clocks. One of the clocks is set to Greenwich Mean Time, which controls all of the clocks in the system. With this design concept the software can keep track of up to eight time zones simultaneously.
Download Links For Website-2
Website-3) Provides Software-Based Elapsed-Timers
TITLE: Elapsed-Timers Created with Spreadsheet Software
Download Links For Website-3
Website-4) This Website Provides Six Devices for
Scheduling and Planning Projects or Daily Activities.
TITLE: Project Timers, Planners,-and-Calendars
Created with Spreadsheet Software
Download Links For Website-4
Website-5) Provides Seven Calculation Devices for
TITLE: Calculation Devices for Budgeting Time
Created with Spreadsheet Software
5) DESCRIPTION: Website-5 provides seven calculation devices for budgeting time, and it explains the concept of budgeting time, in a way that is similar to the way we budget money. The calculation devices on this website add up the estimated time required to complete a number of tasks associated with a goal or project. Some of these devices function similar to the way a spreadsheet functions for budgeting money.
Download Links For Website-5
3) This device is similar to the above, except it has an additional feature to enter the number of hours per day you expect to work on the project, which is very useful. With this feature, the calculator indicates how many days are required to complete the PROJECT.
5) This calculator has the features mentioned above. However, it also has an input box to enter the time that was allotted for a PROJECT. With this feature, the calculator work similar to a budget worksheet for money. As you enter tasks, the estimated time for each task is subtracted from the allotted time.
Website-6) Clock That Displays Time, Date, and
Some Unusual Time Measurements Based on Percent of Day
TITLE: Online Percentage Clock for Time and Date
Download Links For Website-6
Website-7 Provides Eight Elapsed Timers, Created
For Demonstration And Experimental Purposes,
Created with Microsoft Excel
7) DESCRIPTION: Website-7 has eight timing devices that measure elapsed time, as soon as the user enters a start date and start time. The date is typed in, and the time is entered with pull-down menus. I consider most of these timing devices experimental (or created for demonstration purposes), except for devices 7 and 8, because the units that they measure time with are extremely small, and most computers probably cannot provide the required level of precision. Devices 7 and 8 used more practical units, consisting of days, hours, minutes and seconds.
Device 7 is especially interesting because it has 16 displays, and it uses time units ranging days to attoseconds. An attosecond is one quintillionth of a second. (1 second = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 attoseconds).
The eight timing devices automatically become countdown timers if a start time is entered that is in the future. When time zero is reached they automatically become elapsed timers. The countdown time is displayed with a negative sign on all of the devices, except for device 7. Device 7 uses words to indicate countdown time.
Note each of the eight elapsed timers has detailed instructions on the top section, and to see the time display, it is necessary to scroll down.
Download Links For Website-7
DEVICE 1: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Multiple Units If you want to download device 1 left click on these words. This software-based elapsed timer measures and displays time, with a number of units (simultaneously) including: days, hours, minutes, seconds, deciseconds, centiseconds, milliseconds, microseconds, shakes, nanoseconds, picoseconds, femtoseconds, and attoseconds. This software has a separate display for each of the units mentioned above. This device was created primarily to demonstrate the display in measurement of the units of time mentioned above.
MORE INFORMATION ON DEVICE 1) Device 1 has 16 displays. Each of the displays has a formula that calculates the elapsed time and/or countdown time. These formulas are listed below. I created these formulas, to function in Microsoft Excel, and they are somewhat unconventional in structure. The formulas will not function in a conventional Excel spreadsheet, because they are dependent on other formulas, input boxes, and pull-down menus. In the following formulas the function, NOW() represents the current date and time, and -$D$41 represent the start time and start date entered by the user.
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41), D)&" DAYS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24, D)&" HOURS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60, D)&" MINUTES"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60, D)&" SECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*10, D)&" DECISECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*100, D)&" CENTISECONDS "
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000, D)&" MILLISECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000, D)&" MICROSECONDS "
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*100000000, D)&" SHAKES"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000, D)&" NANOSECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000, D)&" PICOSECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000000, D)&" FEMTOSECONDS"
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000000000000, D)&" ATTOSECONDS"
The following three formulas are also in device 1. These formulas are based on cells that were renamed as: DAYS, HOURS, MINUTES, and SECONDS. In these renamed cells, the elapsed time or countdown time is separated into days, hours, minutes, and seconds. This is carried out with a number of other formulas that are not shown.
=Days&" Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes"
=Days&" Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds "&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, 0)
=Days&" Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds "&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, RD)
DEVICE 2: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Seconds and Fractions of a Second. If you want to download device 2 left click on these words. This elapsed timer measures time in seconds, and fractions of a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
=ROUND((NOW()-D39)*24*60*60, D)&" SECONDS"
DEVICE 3: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Milliseconds and Fractions of a Millisecond If you want to download device 3 left click on these words. This elapsed timer measures time in milliseconds, and fractions of a millisecond. A millisecond is 1000th of a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
=ROUND((NOW()-D39)*24*60*60*1000, D)&" MILLISECONDS"
DEVICE 4: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Microseconds and Fractions of a Microsecond. If you want to download device 4 left click on these words. This elapsed timer measures time in microseconds, and fractions of a microsecond. A microsecond is one millionth of a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$39)*24*60*60*1000000, D)&" MICROSECONDS "
DEVICE 5: Experimental Elapsed Timer for Nanoseconds If you want to download device 5 left click on these words. This elapsed timer measures and displays time in nanoseconds, which is 1 billionth of a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$41)*24*60*60*1000000000, D)&" NANOSECONDS"
DEVICE 6 Experimental Elapsed Timer for Picoseconds If you want to download device 6 left click on these words. This elapsed timer measures time in picoseconds, which is one trillionth of a second. The formula used to display the elapsed time or countdown time is presented below in red type:
=ROUND((NOW()-$D$39)*24*60*60*1000000000000, D)&" PICOSECONDS"
DEVICE 7: Elapsed Timer and Countdown Timer Measures Time in Days, Hours, Minutes, and Seconds If you want to download device 7 left click on these words. Unlike the timing devices presented above; this software is a practical timing device, and it measures time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. This device becomes a COUNTDOWN timer, if you enter a start time that is in the future, in the same way as the other devices presented above. However, this device uses words to indicate elapsed time and countdown time, which are: The elapsed time is displayed below, and THE COUNTDOWN TIME IS DISPLAYED BELOW
Device 7 uses two formulas to display the elapsed time or countdown time, which are presented below in red type:
=ROUND(D40,0)&" day, "
=IF($C$35>NOW(), C25, (NOW()-$C$35))
DEVICE 8 is a Practical Device Similar to the Above. If you want to download device 8 left click on these words This software-based elapsed timer measures and displays time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds and fractions of a second. It is similar to device 7, but it functions on a somewhat different principle, with a special set of formulas I devised. These formulas separate the elapsed time, or countdown time, into days, hours, minutes, and seconds. The formulas are in separate cells which are named: Days, Hours, Minutes, and Seconds. The countdown time is presented with negative numbers. This concept eliminates the need to use Excel's formatting code for time, which cannot handle negative numbers. The formula in the display is written in terms of the cell names, which are Days, Hours, Minutes, and Seconds. This formula is presented below in red type:
=Days&" Days, "&Hours&" Hours, "&Minutes&" Minutes, and Seconds "&ROUNDDOWN(Seconds, RD)
IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT THE
SOFTWARE-BASED TIMING DEVICES
HOW TO SAVE THE EXCEL VERSIONS: You can save the Excel versions, in the conventional way that you save an Excel spreadsheet. However, the easiest way to save the Excel versions is to press the s key WHILE HOLDING DOWN THE CTRL KEY.
Note about Timing Devices
Created With Spreadsheet Software
All of the above usually does not result in any practical problems, because most people frequently open and close software, and/or enter or delete data, which automatically updates the time and date. When this is a problem, alternative timing software should be used.
Another Important Note