A General Model of Simple and Complex Systems

By David Alderoty © 2015

This is an e-book with over 18,275 words,

on 162 pages, with 12 short chapters.

Below this yellow section, there are

hyperlinks to access each of the 12 chapters.

To contact the author, left click for a website communication form

Or Use: David@TechForText.com


Introduction to the Basic, Meaning

And Utility of System Theories


System theories are not really theories.  They essentially represent generalized conceptual models of systems, and I am calling the concept in this e-book the General Model of Simple and Complex Systems.  The main utility of a system theory is to assist in the study of systems, which is especially useful for problem solving, and observational and experimental research.  This involves creating a specific conceptual model of the system you are studying, by considering all the relevant factors that relate to your primary objective.  A few examples of these factors are illustrated with the following 10 questions:

     1) Does the system and related objective involve physics, chemistry, electronics, computer science, mechanics, economics, business, psychology, sociology, or political science?  2) If the system is comprised of people, who are the leaders, what are the social and cultural dynamics involved with the system?  3) Is the system static or dynamic?  4) What are the forces, or dynamics that relate to the system?  5) What are the cause-and-effect sequences that take place in the system?,  6) What is the energy source for the system?  7) What is the mass, density, and chemical composition of the system?  8) What type of inputs and outputs are involved with the system?  9) Are there feedback and correction loops in the system you are studying?  10) What is the nature of the internal structure of the system?

There are many other factors and related dynamics besides the above, which are discussed in detail in the 12 chapters of this e-book.

     The General Model of Simple and Complex Systems is ONE OF MANY, generalized conceptualizations that apply to many types of systems.  If you are interested in alternative perspectives, and presentations FROM OTHER AUTHORS, scroll down to: Alternative Perspectives on Systems Theories, or left click on the blue underlined words.


If you want to go to the table of contents

of this webpage, left click on these words


Below there are hyperlinks to the 12 chapters of

A General Model of Simple and Complex Systems





Hyperlinks to Access the 12 Chapters of this E-Book


Chapter 1) HTML version: A System Theory: The General Model of Simple and Complex Systems

Left click on these words for the PDF version  Over 1,400 Words, on 11 Pages


Chapter 2) HTML version: Dynamic Systems, and Related Concepts, Left click on these words for the PDF version  Over 2,770 words, on 18 Pages


Chapter 3) HTML version: Chapter 3) Dynamic Systems: Preventing and Solving Problems, with an Understanding of Cause‑and‑Effect Sequences  Left click on these words for the PDF version Over 1,360 words, on 18 Pages


Chapter 4) HTML version: Chapter 4) Cycles, Rates, and Cause‑and‑Effect Sequences of Dynamic Systems  Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 1,900 Words, on 13 Pages


Chapter 5) HTML version: Chapter 5) Diagrams for: Cause-and-Effect Sequences, Energy & Information Flow, Through Dynamic Systems, Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 980 words, on 12 Pages


Chapter 6) HTML version: Static Systems, Forces, and Imperceptibly Small Movements Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 925 Words, on 8 Pages


Chapter 7) HTML version: Open and Closed Systems, and Defining a System, in Terms of a Problem or Goal  Left click on these words for the PDF  version,  Over 1,850, on 13 Pages


Chapter 8) HTML version: Control Mechanisms and Programmed Systems Solving a Problem, by Building a System Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 1,250 Words, on 10 Pages


Chapter 9) HTML version: Systems in Relation to Waves, Energy, Disorder, Order, and Work  Left click on these words for the PDF version,  Over 2,900 Words, on 18 Pages


Chapter 10) HTML version: How Do Simple and Complex Systems DifferLeft click on these words for the PDF version, Over 2,050 Words, on 13 Pages


Chapter 11) HTML version: Evolutionary Systems, and Related Developments, and Problem Solving,   Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 2,250 Words, on 15 Pages


Chapter 12) HTML version: Changing and Reacting Systems and Creating Models Based on a System Conceptualization Left click on these words for the PDF version, Over 1,900 Words, on 13 pages




Alternative Perspectives On Systems Theories


Plants and animals are excellent examples of systems.  It is interesting to note that the most important contributor to the general concept of system theory was a biologist, Ludwig von Bertalanffy.  His system theory is presented in his book General System Theory.  There are many other system theories, which can be seen from the following links.

     If you want, alternative perspectives, conceptualizations, and descriptions of system theories see the following websites from other authors.  Note if a link fails, use the blue underlined words as a search phrase, with www.Google.com.  If the failed link is for a video use www.google.com/videohpThe search will usually bring up the original website, or one or more good alternatives.

     1) Cornell University Library: Dynamical Systems Authors and titles for recent submissions2) List of 40 types of systems theory3) Glossary of systems theory”4) General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All by David Chen, and Walter Stroup5) Cybernetics and Systems Thinkers6) Systems Theory7) What is Systems Theory?8) Family Systems Theory9) Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development, By Alexander Laszlo and Stanley Krippner10) Systems Theory, by BRUCE D. FRIEDMAN11) Systems theory, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science for Information Scientists12) Dynamic Systems Theories, ESTHER THELEN and LINDA B. SMITH13) Systems Theory / Therapy14) Video: Key Concepts in Systems Theory, by Jay Memmott15) Video: Complexity theory: an introduction Complexity Lab, by Jay Memmott



Printing and Additional Formats for this E-book


The chapters in this e-book are also available in Microsoft Word, and the PDF format, with the hyperlinks presented below.  The HTML version, and the format labeled index.docx, are not printer friendly.  The other formats can be printed without difficulty.


Chapter 1)






Chapter 2)






Chapter 3)






Chapter 4)






Chapter 5)






Chapter 6)






Chapter 7)






Chapter 8)






Chapter 9)






Chapter 10)






Chapter 11)






Chapter 12)







How the Words and Pages were Counted in this E-Book


This e-book contains over 18,275 words, on 162 pages.  The words comprising the table of contents, and phrases that are repeated in more than one chapter were not counted.  The page count is based on the PDF version, because the HTML version does not involve a page format.  The actual count for each chapter, was carried out automatically with Microsoft Word, and then totaled with an Excel worksheet as follows:








Below is the hyperlink table of contents for this webpage.  This is not the table of contents for the entire e-book.  Each chapter has its own table of contents.  If you left click on any of the headings listed below, the related section will appear on your computer screen.  You can also, axis this material by scrolling up or down through this webpage.

Top of Webpage


Hyperlinks to Access the 12 Chapters of this E-Book 2


Alternative Perspectives On Systems 3


Printing and Additional Formats for this E-book 5

How Words and Pages Were Counted in this E-Book 8